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Hassan Hanafi (حسن حنفی) (born 1935 in Cairo, Egypt) is a professor and chairs the philosophy department at Cairo University. He is a leading authority on modern Islam.Hanafi was born into an artistic family in Cairo. As a youth he studied the violin, which he continues to play to this day.As a young man motivated by a revolutionary political activism, Hanafi associated with the Muslim Brotherhood. Later Hanafi studied at the Sorbonne in Paris. Since 1967, he has been a professor of philosophy in Cairo, as well as a visiting professor at universities in France, the United States of America, Belgium, Kuwait and Germany.